Date of Award

January 2012

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Joseph Miller


This study further examined internal consistency reliability and convergent-divergent validity of a three dimensional haptic matrix completion task as a measure of non-verbal intelligence for persons with low or no vision. Sixty-six UND undergraduates completed the prototype Haptic Matrices Intelligence Assessment (HMIA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 4th Edition (WAIS-IV), as well as several other tasks. Convergent validity was previously established for the HMIA with the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. However, the HMIA was designed for use in clinical settings to complement or replace popular assessment tools that are inappropriate for use with visually-impaired examinees. Therefore, ecological validity was examined (via convergent validity) with an instrument more commonly used in clinical applications (e.g. the WAIS-IV). Utilizing the WAIS-IV allowed for more reliable estimates of criteria constructs and examination of the precise constructs underlying HMIA task performance. Additional tasks that related more directly to manual-motor components of HMIA performance were also used to examine the effects of haptic ability on test scores. The HMIA was found to assess non-verbal abstract reasoning abilities, haptic spatial performance, and working memory skills. Further research is warranted with individuals with visual impairments.