Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Communication Sciences & Disorders


Speech/language pathologists in Manitoba public schools have expressed concern about their large caseloads and their frustrations in dealing with time restrictions. Indirect services have been suggested as a means of coping with these concerns. Research has shown that indirect services such as home programs and use of paraprofessionals, volunteers, and classroom and resource teachers have proven to be especially effective.

The purpose of this study was to compile information from speech/language pathologists in Manitoba public schools concerning use of indirect services and to use this information to compare service models used by subjects working in urban and rural areas of the province.

Questionnaires were completed by thirty-two (43.2 percent of the total) speech/language pathologists employed in public schools in both urban and rural Manitoba.

The data revealed that most speech/language pathologists use indirect services. This study showed that indirect services were used more by rural speech/language pathologists. The rural respondents were also found to have more students on their caseload (rural X = 100, urban X = 64), more schools to serve (rural X = 13, urban X = 6), and more traveling to do per month (rural X = 1181 miles, urban X = 128 miles). The rural respondents also reported using indirect services more often than their urban counterparts as the only method of intervention. Service delivery models differed in this respect. Most respondents felt they used indirect services effectively. Therefore, rural respondents appeared to feel they were meeting the demands of large caseloads and large territories through use of indirect services.

Most respondents (90.0 percent) reported they used home programs. Less than half of the respondents (43.3 percent) reported that they used volunteers to carry out articulation/speech programs. Most respondents (90.0 percent) reported that they utilize supportive personnel (especially classroom and resource teachers) to implement indirect services. Also, 73.3 percent of the respondents agreed that they could benefit from inservice training on methods of extending services.

A recommendation resulting from this study was that administrators consider inservice training or workshops to disseminate information regarding implementation of indirect services. It was also recommended that caseloads and traveling time be reduced, particularly in rural areas.