Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Teaching & Learning


A questionnaire survey of the Level III (rural) elementary and secondary school teachers (518), administrators (259), and school board presidents (84) in North Dakota was conducted on the topic of teacher supervision/evaluation. Participating were 132 accredited public high school districts. The survey attempted to identify background characteristics of the respondents and current practices in teacher supervision/evaluation used in their school districts. In addition, the respondents were given an opportunity to provide their personal views as to the unique problems these small schools might have with teacher supervision/evaluation as well as to suggest ways in which the present programs or processes might be improved.

A high percentage of the total population were native to the state and had lived more than fifteen years in a rural setting. One-third of the elementary teachers had spouses who were originally from the community in which they were teaching.

A small percentage (8%) of the teachers had earned a degree beyond the bachelor's degree. A somewhat higher percentage of the secondary (38%) and elementary (27%) principals had more than a bachelor's degree. Only 5 percent of the total administrative group had earned a degree beyond the master's degree. Among school board presidents, 48 percent had received education beyond high school.

In general, the population expressed greater satisfaction than dissatisfaction with the supervision/evaluation practices in their school districts. However, approximately one-third of the total population indicated personal dissatisfaction with the practices.

The area of personal relationships was indicated as a primary problem in small schools. Familiarity and informality among staff brought a lack of objectivity and openness to the process.

Administrators (69%) often held classroom teaching responsibilities. Therefore, administrators indicated a need for more time to devote to supervision/evaluation.

All groups viewed teacher supervision/evaluation as usually being conducted as a means for teacher improvement. However, most processes being used were summative rather than formative in nature. There appeared to be a need to refocus toward the goal of teacher improvement rather than that of administrative decision making.