Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




While research has suggested there is a possibility that headache assessment tools may be affected by the pain state of the individual, only one study to date has examined pain-state differences in assessment results for individuals diagnosed with a headache disorder. Holroyd, France, Nash & Hursey (1993) showed that most differences between headache sufferers and control groups on psychological symptom reports were an artifact of pain state. The present study examined the influence of headache pain state on self-reported psychological and behavioral variables. Undergraduate male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 were selected based on their fulfillment of criteria for one of three groups: chronic tension-type headache sufferers (n = 37), migraine headache sufferers ( n = 31), or headache-free individuals (n = 30). Migraine and tension headache sufferers met the International Headache Society's criteria for chronic tension-type headache and migraine with or without aura (IHS, 1988). The results of a repeated measures MANOVA using subscales of the Coping Strategies Inventory revealed significant group and pain-state effects, such that scores on wishful thinking and social withdrawal subscales were higher during pain state. Results of a repeated measures MANOVA for the Daily Hassles Scale showed a significant group effect, such that migraine, tension and control groups differed on all seven subscales. While significant group differences on inner concerns and time pressures on the Daily Hassles Scale replicated previous findings, group differences on all seven subscales had not been previously demonstrated. Significant correlations between headache subjects' pain rating during assessment and symptom reports, as well as discriminant analyses conducted to examine redundancies in symptom measures, were discussed. Results were discussed in terms of the importance of pain-state in the assessment of headache disorders.