Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

W.M. Laird


Kidder County is situated in central North Dakota within the glaciated Missouri Plateau. Rocks underlying the drift range from Cretaceous (Pierre formation) through Palocene (Tongue River formation) in age. The Pierre and Fox Hills formations constitute the majority of the pre-Pleistocene surface. Ice-shove deformation, apparently during Cary time, tilted blocks of Fox Hills in the Sibley Buttes into northeastward-dipping positions.

Cary and Mankato subages of Wisconsin age are represented at the surface. Ages are difficult to assign to drift sheets on the basis of lithology or degree of weathering of included tills; but by correlation from South Dakota and crosscutting relationships of moraines, age assignments are suggested. The Sibley Buttes moraine marks a readvance during probable 1st Cary time as indicated by its transection of the Long Lake loop. Small recessional moraines mark positions of stillstand during eastward retreat of 1st Cary ice. Second Cary drift occurs north of Tuttle and Robinson, and outwash to its south indicates melting was the dominant process. Local stagnation formed pitted outwash, especially along the borders of the stagnating ice.

First Mankato deposits are not exposed in the area. Second Mankato deposits are represented in part by the massive, lobe-shaped McPhail Buttes moraine. Glaciofluvial material of the 2nd Mankato subage derived from the northeast has partially buried parts of the 2nd Mankato drift in the northeast part of the area.

Recent sediment consists of alluvium and reworked outwash sand.

Preglacial drainage was southeastward into the preglacial Cannonball River which flowed northeastward across the center of the County.

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