Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




This paper will consist of a history of the evolution of the Turtie Mountain Chippewa as viewed from the lives of the three Chief Little Shells (grandfather, father, and son). The paper will pay particular attention to the origins through historical analysis. The first Chief Little Shell life coincides with the woodland Chippewa moving onto the plains at the end of the eighteenth century. The paper will sketch the history of the plains Chippewa known as the Pembina Chippewa up to the Pembina Treaty of 1863, when a large part of the group will split and form the Turtle Mountain band.

The bulk of the paper will focus on the years from 1882 to 1892 at the newly formed Turtle Mountain Reservation. With a background of existing histories and analysis, new evidence will be brought forward which will dramatically alter accepted mainstream theories. It is the purpose of this paper to shed new light on the causes leading to the creation of the reservation and the removai of Chief Little Shell in 1892.