Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




American Indians' “place” in the context of the Majority Culture has never been clear to either them or their non-Indian counterparts. Many authors of cross-cultural literature suggest the experience of “living with one foot in two canoes” is stressful, confusing, and can even lead to reduced life success and increased psychopathology. This study attempted to develop a factor-analytically devised inventory intended to aid in identification of bicultural identification in hopes it may contribute to greater understanding between cultural orientation and healthy or maladaptive American Indians' functioning.

One hundred and ninety-eight American Indian and Caucasian students and community members from four year, non-tribal institutions of higher learning and tribal colleges in North and South Dakota provided data for the refining of the American Indian Biculturalism Inventory-Northern Plains (AIBI-NP). The AIBI-NP was designed to measure participants perceived level of cultural identification within both American Indian and Majority Culture perspectives.

Results of Factor and Item Analyses produced a 25-item scale that suggested a two-factor solution. The nature of these factors were interpreted to represent an American Indian Cultural Identification Factor or subscale 1, and an European American Cultural Identification Factor or subscale 2. Suggestions for interpretation of subscale scores, study limitations, future research directions, as well as the potential applicability for scales such as the AIBI-NP are discussed within.