Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session
From the introduction: "It is the purpose of this paper to outline a set of procedures for determining which of the generally accepted devices for introducing new concepts into receptor languages would most economically stimulate semantic change in any given situation. That is, the procedures are an attempt to enable a translator initiating work in a new language to predict with a certain degree of accuracy the device appropriate to a given situation and the normal semantic load assignable to it. Devices discussed are APPROXIMATION, including the use of related items, metaphors and similes; CREATION, including annalogical innovations of similes as well as simple calques; CULTURAL EQUIVALENTS, calques of a different nature; and BORROWING, the introduction of the foreign term, with or without qualifications such as obligatory grammatical markers or optional explanatory wordings."
Bridgeman, Loraine I.
"Handling lexical translation problems: A set of procedures,"
Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session: Vol. 11, Article 2.
Available at: https://commons.und.edu/sil-work-papers/vol11/iss1/2