Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)



First Advisor

Dr. Lee Clayton


In the resolution of patterns of groundwater flow, certain surface expression is noted as being helpful. Vegetation has been used in other areas as an indicator of the chemistry of groundwater, but this type of exploration may be expanded to include physiography as well as vegetation.

The presence of groundwater seepage slopes affords another means by which flow patterns may be classified. Surface effects of groundwater chemistry differ strikingly between an area of local flow and an area of regional flow.

The use of surface characteristics as criteria by which groundwater flow systems may be resolved is useful with the aid of aerial photographs. This method gives positions of outcropping groundwater as well as hints to what type of water may be expected.

The Stanley, North Dakota, Area is characterized by regional groundwater discharge in low areas which lie in a disconnected string. The most saline of these lakes lie also in accordance with a preglacial topographic low. The relationship between the two are discussed.

The Turtle Mountains area is characterized by infinitely many small local type flow systems which have waters much lower in total ion accumulation. This is manifested in abundant and varied vegetation which contrasts sharply with surrounding prairie.