Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)




The increasing importance of index of refraction liquids in nonopaque mineral determination is stressed, with the fact that sets of index liquids are relatively easy to make with a few media and simple equipment. The desired features of an immersion series are listed.

The end members selected for this set of index liquids are: 1) methyl butyrate; 2) “Nujol”; 3) α-chloronaptalene; 4)1-bromonapthalene; 5) methylene iodide.

The approximate index of a mixture of two liquids may be determined from the formula V1N1+V2N2=(V1+V2)n, but the resulting index must be verified by other means. Mixing curve may be drawn by plotting a graph in which index of refraction is a function of composition by volume; the curve is used to determine the proportions necessary to make any liquid with a desired index of refraction.

The liquids may be standardized with a refractometer or a one-circle goniometer; the building and operation of a goniometer is discussed.