Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Master of Physical Therapy (MPT)


Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Thomas Mohr


Sacroiliac Joint


Low back pain is a common cause of limitation in daily activities. Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is often an overlooked cause of low back pain. The biomechanics of the SIJ is not well understood. There is controversy about how much movement is in the joint, but it is generally agreed that movement does occur. There are six ligaments in the SIJ that add to its stability and no muscles that act directly on the joint. SIJ dysfunction can be caused by direct trauma, indirect trauma, pregnancy, or muscle imbalances. Evaluation of the SIJ should include subjective and objective information. The objective evaluation consists of two types of special tests; palpation and provocation. Palpation tests have poor intertester reliability while provocation tests have good intertester reliability. Physical therapists should use a combination of tests to increase reliability. Treatment includes rest, medications, modalities, stretching and strengthening, mobilizations, muscle energy techniques (METs), and manipulations. Mobilizations and METs are usually combined to increase the success of treatment. Manipulation is the most successful treatment but it requires special skill and can aggravate low back pain.