Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Master of Physical Therapy (MPT)


Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Peggy Mohr


Golf; Movement -- physiology; Muscles -- physiology


The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the trunk muscle activity and range of motion in male and female golfers. With the use of surface electrode electromyography and motion analysis, three male and three female Division II collegiate golfers were evaluated. The EMG activity of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, and external oblique muscles was measured bilaterally during the golf swing. The main emphasis in analyzing the trunk range of motion was comparing relative pelvis to shoulder rotation (X-factor) throughout the swing. The researchers found definitive differences in the patterns of muscle activity and range of motion between male and female golfers. The male golfers' muscle activity occurred slightly earlier in the swing than the female golfers. The males also had a greater X-factor by about 10° and a faster swing by approximately .20 seconds than the females. These findings demonstrate the importance of the trunk and pelvic muscles in stabilizing and initiating motion in the spine during the golf swing. This study, along with previous studies, provides the framework for developing rehabilitation and training programs for the golfer stressing stability, strength, and mobility of the trunk.