Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)


Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Meridee Danks


Postural Balance


PURPOSE: Normative data ranges are not available for all functional balance tests for all age groups. The purpose is to establish intra-reliability and normative age-sensitive data ranges in a battery of functional balance-related measures including the modified Clinical Test for Sensory Integration and Balance (mCTSIB), One-legged Stance Test (OLST), Functional Reach Test (FRT), 30-second Sit-to-Stand Test (30STS), 1 O-meter Walk Test (10MWT), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC Scale).

METHODS: Ninety-two subjects (n =92), aged 19-87 years, were tested with each of these balance tests. Participants were randomly assigned the order in which to complete the six balance tests. Intra-rater reliability was established for the FRT, 30STS, and 10MWT using 10 subjects. Data were compiled into normative distributions into three age cohorts for all six tests, 19-39 years old, 40-59 years old, and 60 and older age ranges. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to compare age cohorts for the FRT, 30STS, 10MWT, and ABC Scale. Bonferroni post hoc analysis was used to assess for statistically significant differences between age groups for the FRT, 30STS, 10MWT, and ABC Scale. Cross tab analysis was used to assess the frequencies of age group performances on the mCTSIB and OLST.

RESULTS: Reliability was established for the FRT (ICC = 0.976), 30STS (ICC = 0.973), and 10MWT (ICC = 0.824). Reliability could not be statistically determined for the mCTSIB, OLST, and ABC Scale. The main findings of this study indicated that the differences in balance between different age categories were apparent among younger cohort groups (19-39 years and 40-59 years) and older-aged group (60-87 years).

CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide normative values for six balance tests for three age cohorts, 19-39 years old, 40-59 years old, and 60-87 years old. Intra-rater reliability was established for the FRT, 30STS, and 10MWT. Deterioration in balance appears to begin after people turn 60 years and older. The findings from this study can be used by clinicians and researchers when assessing balance capabilities of their clientele.