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Journal of Interpersonal Violence


In North Dakota (ND), American Indian women are more likely to be exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and interpersonal violence, and receive late prenatal care (PNC) compared to other racial groups. In a sample of 1,849 (weighted n = 26,348) women from the 2017 to 2019 North Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we performed a series of logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for AI and Other Racial Identity women compared to White women regarding risk of late PNC (initiated after week 13) and dissatisfaction of PNC timing. Models were adjusted for interpersonal violence (from husband/partner, family member, someone outside of family, ex-husband/partner, or any) to determine if violence accounts for racial/ethnic disparities in PNC. AI women experienced two-fold higher risk of late PNC (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.26) and dissatisfaction of PNC timing (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.61, 3.40) than White women. In the analyses for the association between joint ACEs (Higher: ≥4; Lower: <4)/Race and PNC outcomes, odds of late PNC were two-fold among AI women with Higher ACEs (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.94) and Lower ACEs (OR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.69, 4.41), compared to White women with Lower ACEs. Results were similar for dissatisfaction of PNC timing. Accounting for violence did not significantly change odds ratios in any analyses. Thus, interpersonal violence surrounding pregnancy does not explain racial disparities in PNC in ND. To understand disparities in PNC among AI women, risk factors like historic trauma and systemic oppression should be examined.






The publisher's version of this article is available at:

Schmidt, L., Kanichy, M., Njau, G., Schmidt, M., Stepanov, A., Anderson, R., Stiffarm, A., & Williams, A. (2023). Adverse Childhood Experiences, Interpersonal Violence, and Racial Disparities in Early Prenatal Care in North Dakota (ND PRAMS 2017–2019). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0(0).

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