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Fossil fuels, such as coal and hydrocarbons, are major drivers of global warming and are primarily responsible for worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide CO2. The storage of CO2 in deep saline reservoirs is acknowledged as one of the top practical and promising methods to reduce CO2 emissions and meet climate goals. The North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) recently approved the fourth Class VI permit for a carbon capture and storage project in the Williston basin of North Dakota for the geological CO2 storage in the Broom Creek formation. The current research aimed to conduct a comprehensive petrophysical characterization and rock physics modeling of the Broom Creek deep saline reservoir to unravel the mineralogical distribution and to understand the variations in petrophysical and elastic properties across the formation. This study utilized geophysical well logs, routine core analysis, and advanced core analysis to evaluate the Broom Creek formation. Multimineral petrophysical analysis calibrated with X-ray diffraction results reveals that this formation primarily comprises highly porous clean sandstone intervals with low-porosity interspersed with dolomite, anhydrite, and silt/clay layers. The formation exhibits varying porosities up to 0.3 and Klinkenberg air permeabilities up to ∼2600 mD. The formation water resistivity using Archie’s equation is approximately 0.055 ohm-m at 150 °F, corresponding to around 63,000 ppm NaCl salinity, which is consistent with prior data. The pore throat distribution in the samples from clean sandstone intervals is primarily situated in the macro-mega scales. However, the presence of anhydrite and dolomite impedes both porosity and pore throat sizes. The accurate prediction of effective elastic properties was achieved by developing a rock physics template. Dry rock moduli were modeled using Hill’s average, while Berryman’s self-consistent scheme was employed for modeling saturated moduli.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.