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Petroleum & Petrochemical Engineering Journal




This study compares the salt concentration and mineral composition of water from the Bakken Formation and the Inyan Kara Formation to assess their suitability for salt/critical minerals extraction. The results reveal that the Bakken Formation exhibits significantly higher levels of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, and chloride compared to the Inyan Kara Formation, indicating its potential suitability for salt/critical elements extraction. Conversely, the Inyan Kara Formation water displays higher bicarbonate concentrations, which may limit its applicability in certain salt extraction processes. The Bakken Formation proves more viable for water production due to its existing oil and gas infrastructure and abundant produced water from active and abandoned oil wells. This availability of produced water wells reduces the cost of critical mineral extraction and presents opportunities for water reuse or critical minerals sale, generating additional revenue that could offset recycling and disposal costs. In contrast, the absence of water production wells in the Inyan Kara Formation hinders its economic feasibility for salt/mineral extraction. The Inyan Kara Formation has a higher volume of water, but its lower salt content limits its usefulness for some purposes, especially in the energy industry for recovering rare earth minerals. Considering the higher mineralization, the concentration of key ions, and the presence of water production infrastructure, the Bakken Formation emerges as a more favorable choice for critical mineral extraction. However, factors like environmental impact and extraction costs should be considered in determining the most suitable formation. Despite data limitations, the study utilizes a valuable database to identify regional variations in salt concentrations for critical mineral extraction.







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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.