The net-effective stress is a fundamental physical property that undergoes dynamic changes in response to variations in pore pressure during production and injection activities. Petrophysical properties, including porosity, permeability, and wave velocities, play a critical role and exhibit strong dependence on the mechanical stress state of the formation. The Williston basin’s Bakken Formation represents a significant reservoir of hydrocarbons within the United States. To investigate this formation, we extracted core plugs from three distinct Bakken members, namely Upper Bakken, Middle Bakken, and Lower Bakken. Subsequently, we conducted a series of measurements of ultrasonic compressional and shear wave velocities, as well as pulse decay permeabilities using nitrogen, under various confining pressures employing the Autolab-1500 apparatus. Our experimental observations revealed that the ultrasonic wave velocities and permeability display a significant sensitivity to stress changes. We investigated existing empirical relationships on velocity-effective stress, compressional-shear wave velocities, and permeability-effective stress, and proposed the best models and associated fitting parameters applicable to the current datasets. In conjunction with the acquired datasets, these models have considerable potential for use in time-lapse seismic monitoring and the study of production decline behavior. The best fitting models can be used to forecast the petrophysical and geomechanical property changes as the reservoir pore pressure is depleted due to the production, which is critical to the production forecast for unconventional reservoirs.
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Prasad Pothana, Ghoulem Ifrene, and Kegang Ling. "Stress-Dependent Petrophysical Properties of the Bakken Unconventional Petroleum System: Insights from Elastic Wave Velocities and Permeability Measurements" (2023). Petroleum Engineering Student Publications. 4.