Understanding geomechanical properties of rocks at multiple scales is critical and relevant in various disciplines including civil, mining, petroleum and geological engineering. Several upscaling frameworks were proposed to model elastic properties of common rock types from micro to macroscale, considering the heterogeneity and anisotropy in the samples. However, direct comparison of the results from different upscaling methods remains limited, which can question their accuracy in laboratory experiments. Extreme heterogeneity of natural rocks that arises from various existing components in them adds complexity to verifying the accuracy of these upscaling methods. Therefore, experimental validation of various upscaling methods is performed by creating simple component materials, which is, in this study, examining the predicted macroscale geomechanical properties of 3D printed rocks. Nanoindentation data were first captured from 3D printed gypsum powder and binder rock fragments followed by, triaxial compression tests on similar cylindrical core plugs to acquire modulus values in micro and macroscale respectively. Mori-Tanaka (MT) scheme, Self-Consistent Scheme (SCS) method and Differential Effective Medium (DEM) theory were used to estimate Young’s modulus in macroscale based on the results of nanoindentation experiments. The comparison demonstrated that M-T and SCS methods would provide us with more comparable results than DEM method. In addition, the potential applications of 3D printed rocks were also discussed regarding rock physics and the geomechanics area in petroleum engineering and geosciences
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Kong, Lingyun; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Zamiran, Siavash; Liu, Bo; Li, Chunxiao; and Marino, Gennaro G., "Geomechanical Upscaling Methods: Comparison and Verification via 3D Printing" (2019). Petroleum Engineering Faculty Publications. 5.