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Oxidative stress has been linked to cellular damage initiating disease processes such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. The Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2(Nrf2) pathway (Figure 1) aids in age-related cellular decline. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between Protandim, its activation of the Nrf2 pathway, and decline in oxidative stress and cellular damage. The literature review included journal articles obtained from PubMed, Google scholar, and Cochrane review within the past 5-10 years, and contained both animal and human studies. The methods used in the animal studies included ANOVA, the standardized t-test, and the Neuman-Keuls post-test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The human study included healthy participants, both male and female, age 29-78 with or without a specific medical diagnosis. Statistical analysis was based on the standardized t-test with a value of p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Liu et al. (2009) conducted a study investigating Protandim’s ability to suppress cancer tumor formation. Tumor incidence declined by 33% and multiplicity of skin tumors by 57% with p = 0.003. Superoxide dismutase increased 35%, catalase 58%, and manganese superoxide dismutase 21%. In 2013, Reuland et al. conducted a study to determine if Protandim could activate the Nrf2 pathway and induce antioxidant enzymes, thereby protecting cardiomyocytes from apoptosis. Results indicated that treated cardiomyocytes showed increased levels of Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and protection against cell targeted oxidative stress (p<0.05). Quereshi et al. (2010) completed a study to delineate if Protandim decreased oxidative stress through the Nrf2 pathway. After six months of supplementation, TBARS decreased by 48% (p=.006), and plasma osteopontin decreased by 57% (p=.018). In 2005, Nelson et al. conducted a study to determine if Protandim decreased cellular damage. After 30 days of supplementation, TBARS declined by 40% (p =0.0001), at 120 days, TBARS declined by 40-54% (p =0.002), and superoxide dismutase and catalase increased by 30% and 54% respectively. The results from studies indicate that Protandim’s activation of the Nrf2 pathway increased endogenous antioxidant availability, resulting in decreased oxidative stress and age related cellular damage.


Physician Assistant Studies

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Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)

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Antioxidants -- therapeutic use; Dietary Supplements; Oxidation-Reduction; Oxidative Stress


Medical Molecular Biology

Nrf2 Pathway and the Reduction of Oxidative Stress