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As the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes affects 29.1 million people. In May, 2015 the U.S. CDC reported, the estimated total financial burden for diabetes in the United States at greater than $245 billion ($69 billion attributed to disability, lost days at work and premature death). The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic variances in parallel with type II diabetes. Through a five year prior search of Cochrane, Medline and Pubmed this review of the literature examined studies regarding type II diabetes related genetic variances specific to non-ethnic and ethnic populations of otherwise healthy adults aged 18-65 years old. Methods encompassed extracting DNA from nuclear pellets. Further genotyping was conducted using SNPlex or Assays on Demand. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Literature reviews utilized centre-stratified analyses, combining evidence from each centre using fixed-effect meta-analyses. The authors then assessed research subjects against controls utilizing measured genotype and additive genetic models adjusted for age and gender. Significance thresholds were then adjusted where a p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Franceschini et al. (2013), Wu et al. (2014) Hanson et al. (2013), Kato (2013), Yagootak and Frayling (2013), Sun, Yu and Hu (2014) and Pal and McCarthy (2013) stated over 60 genetic loci have been identified to date in candidate gene and genome-wide association studies regarding type II diabetes. Of the genetic loci discovered, Wu et al. (2014) and Yagatook and Frayling (2013) determined variants at TCF7L2 resemble the most robust correlation with type II diabetes. Wu et al. (2014) found a 96% concordance rate among monozygotic twins with type II diabetes, as well as a 40% incidence rate of developing type II diabetes among those who have first-degree relatives with the disease. However, Kato (2013) suggests previous studies only account for 5-10% of heritability associated with type II diabetes. Sun, Yu and Hu (2014) reported the concept of pharmacogenomics (drug molecular mechanisms related to gene variants and drug efficacy) may eventually drive clinical decision making regarding type II diabetes drug selection, dose titration and adverse side effect avoidance. Based on the results of the studies in this review, accurate genetic data reveals potential to evolve clinically into a valuable instrument, thereby facilitating optimized therapeutics and deferring or suspending the onset of type II diabetes.


Physician Assistant Studies

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Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- genetics; Genetic Loci; Genetic Predisposition to Disease


Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Medical Genetics

Genetic Factors Related to the Incidence of Type II Diabetes in Adults