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• Introduction: The purpose of this research is to compare P.M. dosing outcomes of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in those with hypertension and hypertension plus chronic kidney disease or diabetes.
• Research Methods: Three databases were searched including PubMed, ClinicalKey, and DynaMed with a time frame of 15 years. Studies chosen for review were peer reviewed, and included randomized control trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and a preclinical animal trial.
• Discussion: The research shows evidence of reduced blood pressures throughout the night and into the next day, decreased proteinuria, and decreased cardiovascular events when dosing ACE inhibitors or ARBs at night, or dosing at least one antihypertensive medication at night. This research shows beneficial evidence and no documented adverse patient reactions when dosing ACE inhibitors or ARBs at night. However, further research needs to be conducted with larger patient populations to make official recommendations in those with hypertension and hypertension plus diabetes or chronic kidney disease.
Physician Assistant Studies
Date of Work
Chronotherapy in hypertension, chronotherapy in hypertension with CKD, chronotherapy in diabetes, chronotherapy of ACE inhibitors, chronotherapy of angiotensin II receptor blockers.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Kramer, Savana, "P.M. DOSING OUTCOMES OF ACE INHIBITORS OR ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS IN HYPERTENSION VERSUS P.M. DOSING IN HYPERTENSION WITH COMORBIDITIES" (2021). Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters. 198.