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• Nearly 40% of deaths after trauma can be attributed to blood loss. It is well known that early surgical interventions, combined with other treatment modalities found in the hospital setting, lead to the decreased morbidity and mortality of trauma patients. However, in an outpatient setting, treatments for hemorrhage control are extremely limited.

• The purpose of this literature review was to explore tranexamic acid (TXA) use as an option for hemorrhage control and to determine its effect on morbidity and mortality in both prehospital and outpatient settings. TXA is an FDA approved antifibrinolytic that has proven efficacy for hemorrhage control during many types of surgery and for conditions such as heavy menstrual bleeding. TXA acts on the normal processes of the body’s clotting cascade and promotes clotting, while preventing clot breakdown.

• Data supporting the use of TXA in settings outside of the hospital has previously been limited. This literature review explored recently conducted studies that demonstrate the effects on morbidity and mortality of patients treated with TXA in setting outside of a hospital.

• Evidence from information gathered further promoted the use of TXA in settings such as, EMS, battlefield medicine, and rural health care facilities in certain types of trauma. TXA administration reduced the morbidity and number of deaths from blood loss in the aforementioned settings.

• The findings advocate for the addition of TXA into trauma protocols shows it will lead to a decrease in the number of deaths due to blood loss in trauma.


Physician Assistant Studies

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Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)

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Emergency Medical Services -- methods; Hemorrhage -- drug therapy; Tranexamic Acid -- therapeutic use


Emergency Medicine

Pre-hospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Trauma