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• In today’s society body image and athletic performance are emphasized and influenced by peers’ perception. The inappropriate use of AAS in young males has steadily increased over the past few decades. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term effects AAS have upon the cardiovascular system. The review of literature will explore studies that identify long-term abuse of injected AAS, which are used by adult male athletes’ ages 18-40 compared to those equivalent male athletes who have never used any form of drugs or steroids and their effects on the cardiovascular system. The researcher plans to analyze the data of these studies to better determine how to diagnosis, detect and educate those patients who are susceptible to injury due to AAS usage. The research findings indicated that there is a direct correlation between AAS and young athletic males. Several research studies found a direct correlation between the usage of exogenous steroids and severe cardiovascular effects within the same age group of athletes. The data indicated that providers need to be aware of the increase in AAS users among the younger generation. With a strong emphasize on an athletic males ability to perform one sport to the highest level along with displaying an ideal body image that society demands has been found to have an increase in AAS abuse among this population. The identification and education of patients at risk for or who are abusing AAS is crucial to prevent irreversible cardiovascular events and/or dysfunctions from occurring secondary to abuse.


Physician Assistant Studies

Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)

First Advisor

Vikki McCleary

Publication Date



Anabolic Agents -- adverse effects; Body Image; Doping in Sports; Substance-Related Disorders; Steroids -- adverse effects; Young Adult


Substance Abuse and Addiction

Adverse Cardiovascular Function Secondary to Inappropriate
Exogenous Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Usage in Young Adult Males