Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Jeanie McHugo


COVID-19; Nutrition; 25-hydroxyvitamin D


In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Now, with over five million deaths the pandemic continues to cloak the globe. As of November 2021, 49.1% of the world population has received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccination according to In the United States, the CDC reported 57.6% of the population is fully vaccinated. With much of the population unvaccinated, potential protective factors are needed to help diminish infection. This literature review aimed to investigate a correlation between low serum vitamin D concentrations and outcomes of COVID-19 infections. A total of 27 research articles were reviewed. A comprehensive literature review was performed using electronic search databases PubMed, Embase, and CINHAL up to 5 May 2021. Reference lists of included studies were also reviewed for additional pertinent studies. Key words used along with MeSH words included: COVID-19, covid, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D therapeutic, coronavirus. Search results limited to last two years fitting the time frame of COVID-19 onset, which yielded around 1,200 articles. Exclusion criteria consisted of editorials, abstracts, on-going trials, non-English language, variables other than vitamin D researched and insufficient data on vitamin D measurement. Current literature suggests that insufficient or deficient serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with an increased rate of COVID-19 infection, severity of disease and mortality. Given the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the global population, along with those not vaccinated, applying this research with clinical application of supplementation could help diminish the effects of COVID-19.