Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS)


Physician Assistant Studies

First Advisor

Russ Kauffman


Vitamin A; Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Vitamin K; Deficiency; Hypervitaminosis; Multi-vitamin; Supplement


There is a seemingly infinite list of available formations of over-the-counter supplements, including vitamins. According to Grand View Research, the nutritional supplement industry has grown in popularity in recent years, increasing its worth to an estimated 140 billion dollars in 2020 globally, with vitamins accounting for 31.4% of the revenue. An estimated half of Americans take a daily vitamin or supplement. With the increasing number of people supplementing, the incidence of disease should be trending down. This literature review focuses on fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin A, D, E, and K. Supplementation of these vitamins proposes the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The mechanism behind this theory is logical; these vitamins act as antioxidants preventing damage within our body. This literature review aims to analyze the possible benefits of supplementing with fat-soluble vitamins and investigate the risks of supplementing with fat-soluble vitamins. Supplementing these vitamins has a role when there is an overt deficiency; otherwise, there is little evidence to support the other preventative health claims. The overall recommendations are to obtain these vitamins naturally by consuming whole foods such as animal products and vegetables. The latest research suggests vitamins, like many other components, are needed to keep our bodies healthy, and our bodies require a balance for our bodies to function correctly. Additional research is necessary to have definite recommendations, especially when recommending the specific amounts required daily and the upper limit. A discussion with a medical provider is encouraged to ensure the safety of the supplement and an appropriate amount.