Date of Award


Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT)


Occupational Therapy

First Advisor

Anne M. Haskins


Handwriting; Motor Skills; Adults


Handwriting is a skill utilized widely by adults; however, there is a lack of guidelines, information, or literature on the subject as it relates to adults. The purpose of this project was to develop guidelines for occupational therapists to use when providing handwriting interventions with adults. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, DynaMed, and professional journals to further understand the topic of handwriting with adults and its relation to occupational therapy. Currently, there is limited research and information regarding handwriting with adults and no programs or guidelines were found to assist occupational therapists in developing treatment interventions to remediate adult patients' handwriting. The guidelines developed for occupational therapists consist of a review of the anatomy and musculature involved with handwriting, grasp patterns, ergonomic factors relating to handwriting, visual control, proprioception and kinesthesia, spatial analysis, bilateral integration, and age-appropriate activities/intervention ideas for use with occupational therapists' adult clients. The development of these guidelines was grounded in constructivist learning theory to enhance the meaning of the treatment for the client. These guidelines are intended to provide occupational therapists with a basic foundation of knowledge and treatment strategies to maximize their clients' remediation of handwriting dysfunction. The authors of this scholarly project recommend more research be completed on handwriting practices with adults. It is also recommended that an assessment be developed that specifically addresses adult handwriting skills.