Swimming Eel


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This letter dated April 11, 1946, from Chief Swimming Eel to United States (US) Senator William Langer, concerns the forced removal of the "Fort Berthold Indians in North Dakota," which Swimming Eel notes is in violation of treaty agreements. Swimming Eel also addresses the high valuation of the land being taken versus the poor quality and low value land being offered in exchange for their removal. The letter petitions the US Congress to honor treaty rights and closes with a note that Swimming Eel is writing on behalf of the "Eastern Regional Area 'Chiefs Grand Council,' League of Nations North American Indians, and eastern affiliate, 'The Federated Eastern Indian League.'"

See also:

Letter from Senator Langer to Chief Swimming Eel Regarding Garrison Dam, May 8, 1946

Date of Work



Garrison Dam, Garrison Diversion, Garrison Reservoir, treaty rights

Organizations Referenced

Schaghticoke, Schautecógue, Skateecook, Scauhtecook, Sckaakhoah, Skachkook, Pishgachiligoh, Cayuga, Gayogohono, Guyohkohnyoh, Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫʼ, “People of the Great Swamp,” Haudenosaunee, Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Iroquois, Iroquois Confederacy, Ongweh’onweh, Six Nations, Six Nations of the Grand River, Ye:i’ Níónöëdzage:h, Réserve des Six Nations, Haudenosaunee, Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Haudenosaunee First Nation, Iroquois, Iroquois Confederacy, Mohawk, Kanienkahagen, Kanyen’kehaka, “People of the Flint,” Cayuga, Gayogohono, Guyohkohnyoh, Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫʼ, “People of the Great Swamp,” Onondaga, Onöñda’gega’, Onundagaono, “People of the Hills,” Oneida, Onayotekaono, Onyota’a:ka, “People of the Standing Stone,” Seneca, Onondowahgah, Onöndowágá, “People of the Great Hill,” Tuscarora, Ska-Ruh-Reh, Skaru:reh, Skaruhreh, “The Shirt Wearing People”, Narragansett Indian Tribe, Narragansett, Chippewa Nation, Ojibwe Nation, Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Saulteaux, Anishinaabe, the Original People, Mohican, Mohican Nation, Mohican Indians, Wampanoag Nation, Wampanoag, Wôpanâak, Wompanog, Federated Eastern Indian League, Mandan Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, Mandan, Nueta, Hidatsa, Arikara, Sahnish, League of Nations North American Indians, Eastern Regional Area “Chiefs Grand Council”

People Referenced

William Langer, Chief Swimming Eel, Franklin Bearce, Elewaththum Swimming Eel Bearce, Chief Red Cloud, Chief Big Snake, Robert Bryan, Chief Pine Tree, William L. Wilcox, Chief Pine Tree, Princess Kathitha, Clara Peckham, Chief Fire Fly, Chief Flying Arrow, Princess Metosanya


Political History | United States History

Letter from Chief Swimming Eel to Senator Langer Regarding Garrison Dam, April 11, 1946