US Government Documents related to Indigenous Nations



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This Executive Order, issued by President Rutherford B. Hayes on July 13, 1880, significantly reduced the size of the Fort Berthold Reservation. Created at the behest of the Northern Pacific Railroad, this executive order resulted in a critical loss of Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara homelands, hunting grounds, and sacred sites.

Publication Date




Arickaree, Arikara, Sahnish, Ree, Hidatsa, Gros Ventre, Minnetaree, Mandans, Mandan, Nueta, executive order, public domain, reservation, executive mansion

Geographic Subjects

Fort Berthold Reservation, Dakota Territory, Montana Territory, Little Missouri River, Fort Buford Military Reservation, Yellowstone River, Powder River, Little Powder River, Missouri River, Township 158, Township 159, White Earth River, Little Knife River

Organizations Referenced

Mandan Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, MHA Nation, the Three Affiliated Tribes, the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, United States government, US Department of the Interior, US Office of Indian Affairs, US Government Land Office, Northern Pacific Railroad

People Referenced

R.B. Hayes, Rutherford B. Hayes, C. Schurz, Carl Schurz, Roland E. Trowbridge


American Politics | Indigenous, Indian, and Aboriginal Law | Indigenous Studies | Law and Politics | Native American Studies | Political History | United States History


This version of the Executive Order includes a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs Rowland E. Trowbridge.

President Hayes's Executive Order, 1880



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