Document Type


Publication Date



MC3E, Citation Research Aircraft, Mesoscale Convective System, Multi-Doppler Radar Analysis, NPOL RHI


The North Dakota Citation Research Aircraft obtained measurements of stratiform precipitation clouds within mesoscale convective systems over Oklahoma during the spring of 2011 (MC3E) in conjunction with a multitude of ground- and airborne-based remote sensing instruments. The Citation was used to take measurements of base atmospheric variables as well as cloud and precipitation properties. Cloud droplet properties were measured by the Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP), Two-Dimensional Cloud probe (2D-C), the High-Volume Precipitation Spectrometer Version 3 (HVPS3) probe, with the spectra from these probes combined to create a single drop size distribution. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program ran three X-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radars (XSAPRs) and launched balloon-borne sounding systems (radiosondes) in support of the Citation research flights. NASA's S-band Dual Polarimetric Radar (NPOL) was also used to collect volumetric and range height indicator (RHI) scans during these flights. The ARM Convective Vertical Velocity (CONVV) evaluation Value-Added Product (VAP) is a derived product that combines reflectivity and Doppler velocity data from three XSAPRs and the National Weather Service (NWS) Vance, OK Weather Surveillance Radar 1988-Doppler (WSR-88D) radar to produce a three-dimensional wind retrieval field to a height of 16 km within a 100-km2 horizontal plane. Datasets included in this collection come from the CIP, 2D-C, and HVPS3 (at 1 Hz) aboard one Citation flight occurring on 11 May 2011; two NPOL RHI scans; five CONVV VAP products; one ARM radiosonde; and six volume scans from each of six NWS WSR-88D radars operating in the vicinity of the MC3E field project.


Atmospheric Sciences


2-D Optical Array Spectrometer (2D-C) Probe, Applanix Position and Orientation System for Airborne Vehicles, Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP), Edgetech Dew Point Sensor, Five-Port Flow Angle Sensor (Gust Probe), High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer Version 3 (HVPS3), Nevzorov probe, Rosemount Total Temperature Probe, Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer, Forth Worth, Texas (KFWS) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, Wichita, KS (KICT) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, Inola/Tulsa, OK (KINX) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, Twin Lakes, OK (KTLX) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, Alma/Topeka, KS (KTWX) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, Vance, OK (KVNX) National Weather Service WSR-88D Radar, NASA S-band Dual Polarimetric (NPOL) Radar, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Convective Vertical Velocity (CONVV) Evaluation Value-Added Product (VAP), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Balloon-Borne Sounding System (SONDE)

Processing Level



Midlatitude Convective Clouds Experiment: 2011 Field Season (MC3E)

File Types

TAR.GZ, ASCII, binary



Associated Publications

Skow, A., M. Poellot, D. Delene, M. Askelson, K. North, and M. Oue, 2022: A Multi-Platform In Situ Kinematic and Microphysical Analysis of a Hybrid Parallel–Trailing Stratiform Mesoscale Convective System. Monthly Weather Review., 150, 927–948,


Data was processed using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package found on Data can be analyzed using the NeumannEtAl2021 package, also found on


Lamont, Oklahoma, USA

North Boundary

38 degrees 39 minutes 8 seconds degrees North

West Boundary

100 degrees 48 minutes 21 seconds degrees West

East Boundary

93 degrees 54 minutes 51 seconds degrees West

South Boundary

33 degrees 15 minutes 14 seconds degrees North

Temporal Resolution

1 Hz

Start Date

11-5-2011 3:46 PM

End Date

11-5-2011 9:01 PM