Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Crime and Justice


For several decades time studies have been used as a decision-making tool in criminal justice settings to assist in staffing allocation decisions. Despite their prevalence, these studies have rarely been documented in empirical journals or subjected to peer-review. Publication bias is a likely issue, with only those providing favorable results reaching a public audience. This study reviews the literature and documents a time study of probation and parole officer workloads conducted in a rural Western state. Results reveal probation and parole rely heavily on office-based interactions with probationers and parolees. An over-reliance on compliance enforcement, substantiated by other research in the state, suggests the transition to evidence-based practices and programs remains an ongoing and challenging process as officers continue to cope with caseloads that exceed national recommendations.




This is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Crime and Justice on October 9, 2017, available online at: