Tumor immune escape is an important strategy of tumor survival. There are many mechanisms of tumor immune escape, including immunosuppression, which has become a research hotspot in recent years. The programmed death ligand-1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling pathway is an important component of tumor immunosuppression, which can inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes and enhance the immune tolerance of tumor cells, thereby achieving tumor immune escape. Therefore, targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment; however, the therapeutic effectiveness of PD-L1/PD-1 remains poor. This situation requires gaining a deeper understanding of the complex and varied molecular mechanisms and factors driving the expression and activation of the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling pathway. In this review, we summarize the regulation mechanisms of the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment and their roles in mediating tumor escape. Overall, the evidence accumulated to date suggests that induction of PD-L1 by inflammatory factors in the tumor microenvironment may be one of the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficiency of PD-L1/PD-1 blocking.
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Xianjie Wang, Jie Wang, Xiangying Deng, et al.. "Role of the tumor microenvironment in PD-L1/PD-1-mediated tumor immune escape" (2019). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 10.