Date of Award


Document Type

Critically Appraised Topic


Occupational Therapy

First Advisor

Anne Haskins

Second Advisor

Breann Lamborn

Third Advisor

Gail Bass/Devon Olson Lambert


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019), about 2.87 million traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths occurred in the United States in 2019. It is estimated that around 1.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury every year. Approximately 2.5 to 6.3 million people currently live with a TBI-related disability (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019; Faul & Coronado, 2015, as cited in Powell et al., 2016). Specific populations are at a higher risk for sustaining a TBI. High-risk age groups include children aged four years or younger, young adults 15–19 years of age, or elderly people older than 65 years. (Levin & Diaz-Arrastia., 2015). Additionally, TBI is reported to occur in around 8–22% of military personnel participating in combat operations (Levin & Diaz-Arrastia., 2015). Military personnel are at especially high risk of sustaining TBI due to combat-related injuries. With this, mTBI is estimated to account for 80 to 90 percent of TBI cases in both civilian and military populations. (Levin & Diaz-Arrastia., 2015).