Date of Award


Document Type

Critically Appraised Topic


Occupational Therapy

First Advisor

Anne Haskins

Second Advisor

Breann Lamborn

Third Advisor

Gail Bass/Devon Olson Lambert


Chronic pain is experienced by 20.4% of adults in the United States. It is one of the most common reasons that adults seek medical attention and is linked to restrictions in mobility and daily activities (Dahlhamer et al., 2016). The incidences of anxiety and depression, perceived poor health, reduced quality of life, and dependence on opioids are common with chronic pain (Dahlhamer et al., 2016). This type of pain is described as pain experienced every day for three to six months or more (Pitcher, Von Korff, Bushnell, & Porter, 2001). Chronic pain includes headaches, pain from the lower back, cancer, arthritis, and neurogenic and psychogenic pain (Dahlhamer et al., 2016). This experience of pain has been linked to numerous physical and mental conditions and contributes to high healthcare costs and lost productivity.